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December 21, 2014


Why Hasn’t Indonesia Been Hit With EMS?


Indonesian shrimp farms have not been hit with early mortality syndrome (EMS), a bacterial disease, despite its close proximity to Malaysia, which was hit hard by EMS.


In 2006, however, Indonesia was hit hard by IMNV, a virus disease.  The genetic sequence of the Indonesian strain of IMNV was found to be 99.6% similar to the Brazilian strain of IMNV, so it is highly likely that IMNV arrived in Indonesia from Brazil.   Consequently, after its very bitter experience with IMNV, Indonesia instituted a national quarantine regulation to protect the country from further introduction of exotic diseases through imports.  The measure restricted the previously haphazard importation of shrimp broodstock and postlarvae.  That regulation probably had a lot to do with the fact that Indonesia is EMS free today.


Secondly, accumulated sludge on the pond bottom is a great detriment to water quality.  Feed particles either dropped or swept into these areas are contaminated by bacteria and eaten by the shrimp.  Indonesian farmers keep the bottoms of their ponds very clean.  More than 90% of the ponds in Indonesia have central drains.  Sludge from dead plankton, shrimp feces and uneaten feed that accumulate in the center of a pond and can easily and regularly be discharged by draining the pond.  Some farmers do this five or six times a day.


Source: AQUA Culture AsiaPacific (Editor/Publisher, Zuridah Merican, email  Opinion Article: Some Reasons Why Indonesia Is Free From EMS.  Poh Yong Thong [Poh has his own shrimp farm in Malaysia and has visited many shrimp farms in Thailand and Indonesia in his role as technical service manager for PT Gold Coin Indonesia, a feed company.]  Volume 10, Number 6, Page 18, November/December 2014.

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