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FREE—Penaeus Monodon Hatchery Manual
Based on the Experience in India

Improving Penaeus monodon Hatchery Practices, a manual based on the shrimp farming experience in India, reviews the status of broodstock facilities and hatcheries in India and then discusses ways of improving postlarvae quality.  Focusing on the giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), it also provides technical protocols and guidelines for improving hatchery biosecurity.

 

 

Excerpt

 

The number of shrimp hatcheries in India increased rapidly from the late 1980s to the early 2000s.  In the 2002–2003 production year, approximately 300 hatcheries, mostly in the state of Andhra Pradesh, used an estimated 200,000 broodstock to produce 10 billion postlarvae.

 

Number and Production Capacity of Shrimp Hatcheries in India by State
State
Penaeus monodon
Macrobrachium sp.
Total
 
Number
Capacity
(in millions)
Number
Capacity
(in millions)
Number
Capacity
(in millions)
Andhra Pradesh
148
7,882
43
1,453
191
9,335
West Bengal
2
100
9
66
11
166
Orissa
13
455
2
20
15
475
Kerala
22
484
7
53
29
537
Tamil Nadu and
Pondicherry
73
2,863
8
215
81
3,078
Karnataka
13
301
0
0
13
301
Gujarat
2
45
0
0
2
45
Goa
1
20
0
0
1
20
Maharashtra
6
325
2
20
8
345
Totals
280
12,457
71
1,827
351
14,302

 

 

Although there are 30 shrimp hatcheries in Andhra Pradesh equipped with PCR laboratories, only a few screen the broodstock for whitespot.  Random checking is performed by selecting one or two individuals from a batch of 50–60 broodstock.  Wild-caught broodstock is the only source of shrimp seed.  Studies indicate that about a quarter of wild-caught spawners are infected with the whitespot virus.  Moreover, quality appears to vary with the season, and there are some indications that average size has become smaller and quality poorer.

 

Shrimp Farming Potential, Usage and Production in India
State
Potential Area for Shrimp Farming

Area Under
Culture

Production
(Metric Tons)
Production
(Metric Tons Per Hectare Per Year
Andhra Pradesh
150,000
69,640
53,124
0.76
West Bengal
405,000
49,925
29,714
0.60
Orissa
31,000
12,116
12,390
1.02
Kerala
65,000
14,029
6,641
0.46
Tamil Nadu and
Pondicherry
56,800
3,214
6,070
1.91
Karnataka
8,000
3,085
1,830
0.59
Gujarat
376,000
1,013
1,510
1.49
Goa
18,500
963
700
0.73
Maharashtra
80,000
615
981
1.60
Totals
1,190,900
154,600
112,780
0.73

 

Table of Contents

Download a Free Copy of the Penaeus monodon Manual

 

Introduction

Shrimp hatchery development in India

 

Major Requirements for Effective Hatchery Production

Infrastructure

Facility maintenance

Maintenance of machinery

Regular cleaning and disinfection water, aeration and drainage pipelines

Maintenance of tanks

Maintenance of filters (slow sand, rapid, cartridge, UV/Ozone)

Inlet water quality and treatment

Quality of intake water and treatment options

Inlet water treatment protocol

Seawater intake

Sedimentation/sand filtration of inlet water

Disinfection of inlet water using chlorine

Wastewater treatment

Biosecurity

Personal sanitation and hygiene

Standard operating procedures (SOPS)

Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) approach

Seven steps in applying the HACCP principles

Chemical use during the hatchery production process

Health assessment

Level 1 health assessment techniques

Level 2 health assessment techniques

Level 3 health assessment techniques

 

Pre-Spawning Procedures

Wild broodstock

The broodstock capture fishery

Broodstock quality

Pollution

Domesticated and SPF/SPR/SPT broodstock

Limitations of SPF shrimp

Importation of broodstock

Broodstock landing centers and holding techniques

Broodstock selection and transport from landing/auction centers

Broodstock utilization

Broodstock quarantine

Broodstock health screening

Broodstock maturation

Broodstock nutrition

Broodstock spawning

Egg hatching

Nauplius selection

Egg/nauplius disinfection and washing

Eggs

Nauplii

Holding and disease testing of nauplii

Transportation of nauplii

 

Post-Spawning Procedures

Larval rearing unit preparation

Larval-rearing/health management

Stocking rate

Water exchange protocols

Siphoning of wastes

Aeration

Water quality monitoring

Chemical/antibiotic use

Use of probiotics to replace antibiotics

Responsible use of antibiotics

Larval nutrition and feed management

Use of live algae

Artemia use

Artificial feeds

Important larval diseases

Monodon baculovirus (MBV)

White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV)

Baculoviral midgut gland necrosis virus (BMNV)

Vibriosis

Larval mycosis

Ciliate infestation

Swollen hind gut (SHG)

Diseases of unknown etiology

General assessment of larval condition

Level 1 Health assessment observations

Level 2 Health assessment observations

Level 3 Health assessment techniques

Quality testing/selection of PL for stocking

PL harvest and transportation

Nursery rearing

Timing of PL stocking

Use of multiple species in shrimp hatcheries

Documentation and record keeping

 

References

 

Annexes

Persons responsible for compiling this document

Chemicals and treatments used in shrimp aquaculture in India

List of pharmacologically active substances banned for use in aquaculture in India

Quarantine/maturation tank daily data sheet

Spawning/hatching tank daily data sheet

Larval-rearing tank daily data sheet

Level 1 larval health data sheet

Level 2 larval health data sheet

PL quality testing results sheet

Research and development and extension requirements

 

Sources: 1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.  Improving Penaeus monodon Hatchery Practices (a manual based on experience in India).  Ichiro Nomura and Yugraj Yadava.  FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 446.  Rome, 2007. 2. Bob Rosenberry, Shrimp News International, October 30, 2007.

 

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