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Super-Intensive Biofloc Shrimp Farming

A Manual, Coming Soon

   

 

Shrimp News: Dr. Tzachi Samocha, who recently retired from the Texas A&M AgriLife Research Mariculture Laboratory at Flour Bluff in Corpus Christi, Texas, and some of his associates have written a long, comprehensive manual on growing shrimp at high densities in biofloc systems.  I’ve read a pre-publication copy of the book, and it’s far and away the best thing I’ve ever read on bioflocs.  It contains everything you need to know about bioflocs and everything you need to know about putting together and running a biofloc shrimp farm.  When I say it’s “long” and “comprehensive”, I’m not just reeling out adjectives.  Check out the Table of Contents at the end of this brief interview.

 

Title: The preliminary title of the book is: Design and Operation of Super-Intensive Biofloc-Dominated Systems for the Production of the Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, The Texas A&M AgriLife Research Experience.  [Yes, that’s a mouthful.  Send me suggestions on a better name, and I’ll submit them to the authors!]

 

Authors: Tzachi M. Samocha, David I. Prangnell, Terrill R. Hanson, Granvil D. Treece, Timothy C. Morris, Leandro F. Castro and Nick Staresinic.

 

At the World Aquaculture Society Meeting in Las Vegas, Nevada, USA (February 22–26, 2016), I interviewed Dr. Samocha and Dr. Prangnell about the new book.

 

Shrimp News: Hi Tzachi, what’s the status of your new book on bioflocs?

 

Tzachi Samocha: The first draft of the manual is ready, and right now, it is going through extensive review.  It should be ready for on-line publication sometime this summer, and we’re also raising funds to have hard copies of it printed.

 

Shrimp News: Who is the market for your book?

 

Tzachi Samocha: Shrimp farms that are using intensive nursery systems to produce juveniles for transfer into growout ponds and shrimp farmers that want to raise marine shrimp indoors at inland locations.  Basically, anyone who wants to know the status of indoor biofloc shrimp farming.

 

Shrimp News: If you publish the book on-line, approximately how much do you think it will cost to download it?

 

Tzachi Samocha: We are still debating that, but we think it will be in the range of $40 to $50.

 

Shrimp News: Hi David (Dr. David Prangnell, one of the co-authors of the book), what was your role in the production of the book?

 

David Prangnell: I gathered some of the information and wrote some of the chapters.  When we got started with the book, we sat down and discussed what information would be most useful to the farmer such as equipment, nurseries, growout and water quality management—and pull it all together in a user-friendly format. 

 

Shrimp News: Tzachi, will it be cheaper to produce shrimp in intensive biofloc systems than in ponds?

 

Tzachi Samocha: We know that it’s going to be more expensive to produce shrimp in super-intensive indoor systems than in outdoor ponds.  We also know that there are many advantages to super-intensive indoor shrimp farms.  One of the biggest advantages is that they can market fresh—even live—chemical-free, environmentally friendly shrimp to local markets.  Small-scale shrimp farmers in the United States are already selling fresh shrimp for $10.00 pound and higher.  We recommend that farmers start small, with an investment of $100,000 to $200,000, and experiment with the economics of the system.  We estimate that the farmer’s production costs will be less than $3.00 a pound.  The book will have links to excel files that the farmer can plug numbers into to see what the costs will be for his particular farm.

 

Shrimp News: Are you looking for sponsors to help you cover the cost of printing the book?

 

Tzachi Samocha: Yes, we’re not trying to make any money from the book; we just want to get the information out there.  I will be approaching several large companies asking for thousand-dollar contributions, but if smaller companies and individuals want to make a contribution to the printing of the book, we’ll acknowledge their contribution in the book.  Contributions of any amount will be welcomed.  The World Aquaculture Society (WAS) will publish the book.

 

Shrimp News: Where is the money coming from to get the book ready for on-line publication?

 

Tzachi Samocha: A grant from the National Sea Grant Program, through the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), with help from the Texas Sea Grant Program.  WAS will also cover some of the costs.

 

 

Table of Contents

 

 

Glossary of Terms....Page 10

List of Abbreviations....Page 14

 

Chapter 1:  Introduction....Page 16

Development of Biofloc Technology for Shrimp Production....Page 16

       Indoor Biofloc....Page 23

 

Chapter 2:  Shrimp Biology....Page 37

       Morphology....Page 37

       Life Cycle....Page 38

       Nutrition....Page 39

       Choice of Species for Biofloc Systems....Page 43

 

Chapter 3: Biofloc....Page 46

       Composition and Structure....Page 47

       Biofloc Development....Page 48

       Advantages of Biofloc....Page 49

 

Chapter 4: Water....Page 54

       Source....Page 55

       Ionic Composition....Page 60

       The Nitrogen Cycle....Page 61

              Autotrophic vs. Heterotrophic Systems....Page 66

       Parameters....Page 69

              Alkalinity....Page 69

              Dissolved Oxygen....Page 70

              Nitrogenous Species....Page 71

              Other Ions, Trace Elements, and Heavy Metals....Page 75

              pH....Page 76

              Phosphate....Page 78

              Salinity....Page 78

              Temperature....Page 80

              Solids....Page 80

 

Chapter 5: Site Selection and Production System Requirements....Page 82

       Infrastructure....Page 82

              Site Selection....Page 82

              Buildings....Page 84

              Culture Tanks....Page 88

              Plumbing and Drainage....Page 94

              Electrical Supply....Page 97

       Aeration and Water Circulation Equipment....Page 99

              Blower-Driven Systems....Page 100

              Pump-Driven Systems....Page 107

              Pure Oxygen Supply....Page 111

       Solids Control....Page 113

              Foam Fractionators....Page 114

              Settling Tanks....Page 116

              Cyclone Filter....Page 118

              Other Solids Filtration....Page 119

       Temperature Control....Page 121

       Automatic Feeders....Page 128

       Safety Systems....Page 130

              Theft and Predator Control....Page 130

              Backup Power....Page 131

              Backup Equipment....Page 132

              Water Quality Monitoring....Page 132

              Alarm Systems....Page 132

       Water Quality Laboratory....Page 133

       Recommended Equipment Summary....Page 138

 

Chapter 6: System Treatment and Preparation....Page 143

       Disinfection....Page 143

              Chlorine....Page 146

              Formaldehyde....Page 149

              Iodine....Page 150

              Hydrogen Peroxide....Page 151

              Ozone....Page 151

              Ultraviolet Light (UV)....Page 153

       Pre-filtration....Page 154

       Ionic and Heavy Metal Composition....Page 154

       Nitrifying Bacteria....Page 156

       Probiotics and Vibrio Control....Page 157

       Organic Carbon Supplementation....Page 159

 

Chapter 7: Water Quality Management....Page 160

       Alkalinity....Page 160

       Dissolved Oxygen....Page 163

       Nitrogenous Waste....Page 165

              Ammonia....Page 165

              Nitrite....Page 165

              Nitrate....Page 166

              Nitrogenous Waste Control....Page 166

       Other Ions, Trace Elements and Heavy Metals....Page 170

       pH....Page 172

       Phosphate....Page 173

       Salinity....Page 174

       Temperature....Page 175

       Solids Control....Page 175

              Settleable (Suspended) Solids (SS)....Page 175

              Total Suspended Solids (TSS)....Page 176

              Turbidity....Page 176

       Water Quality Summary....Page 177

       Microbiological Tests....Page 179

       Microalgae and Filamentous Bacteria....Page 182

       Flow Characteristics and Mixing....Page 185

 

Chapter 8: Nursery Phase....Page 187

       Broodstock and Postlarvae Selection....Page 187

       Postlarvae Transport and Delivery....Page 191

       Acclimation and Stocking....Page 192

       Feed Selection and Feeding Practices....Page 208

       Nursery Shrimp Evaluation....Page 214

       Nursery Shrimp Growth Monitoring....Page 215

       Routine Tasks....Page 216

       Juvenile Transfer....Page 218

              Tank Preparations....Page 219

              Equipment and Infrastructure....Page 219

              Survival and Biomass Estimates....Page 222

              Transfer and Collection Options....Page 224

 

Chapter 9: Growout Phase....Page 225

       Tank Preparations....Page 226

       Stocking Considerations....Page 230

       Feed Transport, Selection and Feeding Practices....Page 231

       Shrimp Growth Monitoring....Page 245

       Shrimp Evaluation....Page 249

       Routine Tasks....Page 250

       Personnel....Page 254

 

Chapter 10: Shrimp Harvest....Page 255

       Preparations....Page 256

       Manual Harvest....Page 259

       Harvest by Fish Pump....Page 261

       Live Harvest....Page 266

       Equipment and Infrastructure....Page 268

       Product Handling and Cold Storage....Page 269

 

Chapter 11: Waste Treatment and Disposal....Page 271

       Wastewater and Solid Treatment Options....Page 273

       Water and Solids Disposal Options....Page 277

 

Chapter 12: Disease and Biosecurity....Page 280

       Health Monitoring....Page 281

       Diseases....Page 290

       Disease Control....Page 297

              Biosecurity....Page 297

              Nutrition....Page 303

              Probiotics....Page 304

              Prebiotics and Essential Oils....Page 304

              Vaccines....Page 305

       Disease Treatment....Page 305

              Antibiotics....Page 305

              Phage Therapy....Page 306

       Sample Preparation for Disease Diagnoses....Page 307

 

Chapter 13: Economics of Super-Intensive Recirculating Shrimp Production Systems....Page 308

       Enterprise Budgeting....Page 308

       Bio-Economic Model....Page 317

              Model Inputs....Page 318

              Model Outputs....Page 326

       Capital Investment Examples....Page 334

              Greenhouse/Raceway Design, Materials, Construction and Economies
of Scale....Page 335

              Construction Costs for a Large Greenhouse with Ten 500 m3
Raceways (2 nursery, 8 growout) ....Page 340

              Construction Costs for a Small Greenhouse with Six 40 m3 Growout Raceways....Page 340

              Construction Costs for a Small Greenhouse with Two 100 m3 Raceways....Page 341

       Factors Affecting Cost of Production and Financial Viability....Page 344

       Economic Analysis of 2013 and 2014 Research Trials....Page 346

              2013 Trials—Economic Analysis of Two Feeds in Super-Intensive, Biofloc-Dominated Shrimp Production Systems for the Pacific White Shrimp....Page 347

              2014 Trials—Economic Analysis of Nursery and Growout Production in Zero-Exchange, Biofloc-Dominated Systems in 100 m3 and 40 m3 Raceways....Page 349

       Marketing....Page 353

              General Marketing Principles....Page 353

              Historical Shrimp Prices, Shrimp Size Categories, and Effect on Profitability....Page 366

       Conclusions....Page 370

 

Chapter 14: The Evolution of the TAMU Biofloc System....Page 373

       Site and Structures....Page 373

       Research and Results....Page 396

       Current and Future Research Directions....Page 456

       Perspectives....Page 458

 

Chapter 15: Troubleshooting Table....Page 460

 

Chapter 16: Technical Sheets....Page 471

       Conversion Tables....Page 471

       Temperature Conversion (Celsius/Fahrenheit)....Page 472

       Friction Loss Tables....Page 474

       Periodic Table....Page 477

       Volume Calculations....Page 478

 

References....Page 481

 

Appendix I: Water Quality Testing Procedures and Alternatives....Page 520

 

Appendix II: TCBS [thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose] Plate Testing Method for Vibrio....Page 538

 

Appendix III: Sample Fixation with Davidson’s AFA [alcohol formalin acetic acid] Fixative, Storage, Labeling, and Transport....Page 541

 

Appendix IV: Example Layout of a Water Quality and Control

Laboratory....Page 545

 

Appendix V: The Water Quality Map....Page 549

 

Appendix VI: Excel Sheets....Page 571

 

Information: David Prangnell, PhD, Natural Resources Specialist, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, 505 Staples Road, San Marcos, Texas 78666, USA (Phone 1-361-585- 0407, Email dprangnell@hotmail.com).

 

Information: Tzachi Samocha, Ph.D., Marine Solutions and Feed Technology, LLC., 5446 Timbergate Drive, Corpus Christi, Texas 78413, USA (Office Phone 1-361-334-6940,  Cell Phone 1-361-728-3560, eFax 253-390-6081; Skype: tzachitx, Emails  tzachi.samocha@gmail.com and t-samocha@tamu.edu).

 

Sources: 1.  Dr. Tzachi Samocha and Dr. David Prangnell.  Interview by Bob Rosenberry, Shrimp News International.  Las Vegas, Nevada, USA.  February 24, 2016. 2. Bob Rosenberry, Shrimp News International, March 22, 2016.

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