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What’s in Dr. Samocha’s New Manual on
Biofloc Shrimp Farming?

That’s an easy question to answer?  Everything you might want to know about biofloc shrimp farming, organized with a Table of Contents, Index, References and Glossary, supplemented with eight appendices, and interspersed with 188 graphic elements (pictures of farms, equipment, diagrams, raceways, shrimp anatomy and diseases), 111 tables and links to 22 Excel spreadsheets and 31 videos.  Scroll down this page or click on the links below to view everything that’s included in each of these elements:

Table of Contents
Appendices
Graphic Elements
Tables
Excel Spreadsheets
Videos

The e-copy of the manuscript that I used for this report contained 546 pages (without the index and references); however, I think the final version of the manual will have far fewer pages because the type will be smaller and the pages larger.  If I had to guess, I would say the World Mariculture Society (full contact information at the end of this report) will be ready to distribute an e-version of the manual in February 2017, hopefully in time for its next USA annual meeting, scheduled for February 19–22, 2017 in San Antonio, Texas USA.

As soon as the final manuscript is turned over to the World Mariculture Society and it begins to distribute e-versions of the manual, I’ll post a final review of it to my webpage based on an interview that I did with Dr. Samocha on November 17, 2016, along with some comments from industry experts.  I’ll also include some excerpts from the manual and let you know what I think of it.

  Table of Contents
(top of page)
 

Chapter 1—Introduction
      • Development of Biofloc Technology for Shrimp Production
      • Indoor Biofloc

Chapter 2—Shrimp Biology
      • Morphology
      • Life Cycle
      • Nutrition
      • Choice of Species for Biofloc Systems

Chapter 3—Biofloc
      • Composition and Structure
      • Biofloc Development
      • Advantages of Biofloc

Chapter 4—Water
      • Source
      • Ionic Composition
      • The Nitrogen Cycle
      • Autotrophic versus Heterotrophic Systems
      • Parameters
      • Dissolved Oxygen Concentration
      • Temperature
      • pH
      • Alkalinity
      • Nitrogenous Compounds
                  Ammonia
                  Nitrite
                  Nitrate
      • Solids
                  Settleable/Suspended Solids
                  Total Suspended Solids
                  Turbidity
      • Salinity
      • Phosphate
      • Other Ions, Trace Elements, and Heavy Metals

Chapter 5—Site Selection and Production System Requirements
      • Site Selection
      • Infrastructure
                  Buildings
                  Temperature Control
                  Culture Tanks
                  Plumbing and Drainage
                   Electrical Supply
      • Aeration and Water Circulation Equipment
                  Blower-Driven Systems
                  Mechanical Pump Systems
                  Pure Oxygen
                  Online Oxygen Monitoring Systems
      • Solids Control
                  Settling Tanks
                  Foam Fractionators
                  Cyclone Filter
                  Other Solids Filtration
      • Automatic Feeders
      • Safety Systems
                  Theft and Predator Control
                  Backup Power
                  Backup Equipment
                  Water Quality Monitoring
                  Alarm Systems
      • Water Quality Laboratory
      • Recommended Equipment Summary
      • The Texas A&M-ARML Systems
                  40 m3 Raceway System
                              Greenhouse
                              Culture Tanks
                              Raceway Support and Management Tools
                  100 m3 Raceway System
                              Greenhouse
                              Culture Tanks
                              Raceway Support and Management Tools

Chapter 6—System Treatment and Preparation
      • Pre-filtration
      • Disinfection
                  Chlorine
                  Formaldehyde
                  Iodine
                  Hydrogen Peroxide
                  Ozone
                  Ultraviolet (UV) Light
      • Ionic and Heavy Metal Composition
      • Nitrifying Bacteria
      • Probiotics and Vibrio Control
      • Organic Carbon Supplementation

Chapter 7—Water Quality Management
      • Dissolved Oxygen
      • Temperature
      • pH
      • Alkalinity
      • Inorganic Nitrogen Compounds
                  Ammonia
                  Nitrite
                  Nitrate
                  Nitrogenous Waste Control
      • Solids Control
      • Salinity
      • Phosphate
      • Other Ions, Trace Elements, and Heavy Metals
      • Water Quality Summary
      • Microalgae and Filamentous Bacteria
      • Green-Water to Brown-Water Transition
      • Flow Characteristics and Mixing

Chapter 8—Nursery Phase
      • Broodstock and Postlarvae Selection
      • Postlarvae Transport and Delivery
      • Acclimation and Stocking
      • Feed Selection and Feeding Practices in Nursery Tanks
      • Nursery Shrimp Evaluation
      • Nursery Shrimp Growth Monitoring
      • Routine Tasks
      • Juvenile Transfer
                  Tank Preparations
                  Equipment and Infrastructure
                  Survival and Biomass Estimates
                  Transfer and Collection Options

Chapter 9—Growout Phase
      • Tank Preparation
      • Stocking Considerations
      • Feed Selection, Particle Size, Transport, Storage, and Feeding Practices
      • Monitoring Shrimp Growth
      • Shrimp Evaluation
      • Routine Tasks
      • Personnel

Chapter 10—Shrimp Harvest
      • Preparations
      • Manual Harvest, 40 m3 Raceway
      • Harvest by Fish Pump, m3 Raceways
      • Live Shipping and Hauling
      • Product Handling and Cold Storage

Chapter 11—Waste Treatment and Disposal
      • Wastewater and Solid Treatment Options
      • Water and Solids Disposal Options

Chapter 12—Disease and Biosecurity
      • Health Monitoring
      • Diseases
      • Disease Control
                  Biosecurity
                  Nutrition
                  Probiotics
                  Prebiotics and Essential Oils
                  Vaccines
      • Disease Treatment
                  Antibiotics
                  Phage Therapy
      • Sample Preparation for Disease Diagnoses

Chapter 13—Economics of Super-Intensive Recirculating Shrimp Production Systems
      • Enterprise Budgeting
      • Bio-Economic Model
                  Model Inputs
                  Model Outputs
      • Capital Investment Examples
                  Greenhouse/Raceway Design, Materials, Construction and Economies of Scale
                  Construction Cost for a Large Greenhouse with Ten m3 Raceways
                  Construction Cost for a Small Greenhouse with Six 40 m3 Growout Raceways
                  Construction Cost for a Small Greenhouse with Two m3 Raceways
      • Factors Affecting Cost of Production and Financial Viability
      • Economic Analysis of 2013 and 2014 Research Trials
                  2013 Trials – Economic Analysis of Two Feeds
                  2014 Trials - Analysis of Nursery and Growout in m3 and 40 m3 Raceways
      • Marketing
                  General marketing principles
                  Historical shrimp prices, shrimp size categories, and their effect on profitability
      • Conclusions

Chapter 14—Research and Results
      • Nursery Trials
                  Nursery Trials in the 40 m3 Raceway System
                  Nursery Trials in the m3 Raceways
      • Growout Trials
                  Growout Trials in 40 m3 Raceways
                  Growout Trials in the m3 Raceways
                  Current and Future Research Directions
      • Perspectives

 

Appendices

(With Videos and Spreadsheets) (top of page)

Appendix 1—Water Quality Testing Procedures and Alternatives
• Dissolved oxygen
• Temperature
• pH
• Alkalinity
• Ammonia
• Nitrite
• Nitrate
• Settleable solids
• Total suspended solids
• Turbidity
• Salinity
• Phosphate
• Chlorine

Appendix 2—Microbiological Tests
Vibrio Monitoring
• TCBS Plate Testing Method for Vibrio

Appendix 3—Sample Fixation with Davidson’s AFA Fixative, Storage, Labeling and Transport

Appendix 4—Water Quality Laboratory and Safety Procedures
• Suggested water quality laboratory equipment
• Basic laboratory safety

Appendix 5—The Water Quality Map
• Summary
• Water Quality is Water Chemistry
• The WQ Map: Like Google Maps for Water Quality
• Assumptions
• An Example
• Decorating the WQ Map
• Predicting Water Quality
• Two Common Misconceptions: The effects of bicarbonate and CO2
• Summary

Appendix 6—Technical Sheets
• Unit Conversion
• Temperature conversion sheet
• Friction loss tables
• Periodic table
• Volume calculations

Appendix 7—List of Excel Spreadsheets (top of page)
• PL Acclimation Form
• PL Evaluation Form
• Nursery WQ, Feed, and More_Form
• Nursery Group Sampling Form and Calc
• Nursery Ration Growth FCR Survival
• Nursery WQ Feed Growth FCR Electronic Data Recording Form Example and Cal
• Nursery Individual wt. Frequency Distribution and Feed Calc_Examples
• Shrimp PL Age and Length
• Nursery Sampling Before Transfer Form
• Juvenile Transfer Form and Calc
• Growout WQ Operation Feed Vibrio Inputs Data Recording Form
• Growout Group Sampling Form
• Growout 40 and m3 RWs Growth. FCR. Ration Calc Examples
• Growout Ration Growth FCR Survival
• Calc and Example FCRs m3 RW
• Group Weight Sampling Form and Calc
• Individual Weight Sampling Form
• Organic Carbon Requirement Examples and Cal
Vibrio and Alkalinity Form Examples and Calc
• TSS Form Example and Calc
• pH Calc
• Changes in WQ during Growout_2012 40 m3 RW System Example
• Salinity TDS Conductivity Conversion

Appendix 8—List of Videos (top of page)
• Aeration ring
• Aeration-mixing components and FF return in 40 m3 RWs
• Operation of a small foam fractionator in 40 m3 RWs
• Underwater view of 40 m3 RWs and shrimp PLs in early nursery phase
• Manual harvest of marketable shrimp in 40 m3 RW
• Manual harvest- 40 m3 RW capture only
• Weighing harvested juvenile shrimp in nursery
• Juvenile full guts
• Sampling and shrimp jumping in 40 m3 RW
• Sampling with a cast net in 40 m3 RWs
• Shrimp sampling process explained in 40 m3 RWs
• Weighing a shrimp sample-alternative method in 40 m3 RWs
• Juvenile shrimp in a hauling tank
• A three injector operation and temperature manipulation in 100 m3 RWs
• Cleaning the three injector assembly
• Large foam fractionator in 100 m3 RWs
• Large foam fractionator in 100 m3 RWs.
• Standpipes in m3 Raceways
• Underwater view of m3 RWs and a three injector operation–early nursery phase
• Harvest with a fish pump in 100 m3 RWs
• Clean raceway condition following nursery harvest
• Gentle aeration and mixing following postlarvae stocking
• Pump intake pipes and screens during the early nursery phase - m3 RWs
• Shrimp sampling in the m3 Raceway 1
• Sampling shrimp in the m3 Raceway 2
• Shrimp feeding on surface biofloc mat
• Shrimp jumping
• Dosing chlorine into a reservoir tank using a Venturi
Vibrio monitoring procedures using TCBS agar plates DO display and probe
• DO display and probe
• Measuring settleable solids with an Imhoff cone

 

Pictures of Farms, Equipment, Diagrams, Charts
Raceways, Shrimp Anatomy, Structures and Diseases

(top of page)

• Belize Aquaculture

• Production at outdoor shrimp biofloc farms

• Traditional farm compared to the area required for comparable super-intensive production

• Biofloc technology in practice at Waddell Mariculture Center in Bluffton,
South Carolina, USA

• American Mariculture, Inc. on Pine Island, Florida, USA

• Florida Organic Aquaculture’s indoor biofloc shrimp culture raceways

• Global Blue Technologies hatchery and growout cells near Rockport, Texas, USA

• Commercial shrimp nursery in Texas using biofloc. The eight concrete raceways are
   modeled  on the 100 m3 Texas A&M-ARML raceways

• Indoor shrimp production facility in Medina del Campo, Spain

• Indoor production facility for Litopenaeus vannamei in China

• The Ganix Blue Oasis farm in Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

• Cumulative distribution of total cost ($/kg) for earthen ponds vs. RAS

• Lateral view of the external morphology of a generalized penaeid shrimp

• External genitalia of generalized adult penaeid shrimp, A: petasma (male), B
   and C: thelyca (female)

• Lateral view of the internal morphology of an adult female penaeid shrimp

• Typical lifecycle of penaeid shrimp

• Appearance of the water surface and a microscopic view of a biofloc aggregate from
   an indoor, biofloc-dominated production system

• Morphology of the third maxilliped in three penaeid species: A. Litoenaeus vannamei,
   B. Fenneropenaeus chinensis, C. Marsupenaeus japonicus

• A scanning electron micrograph showing the net-like structure of the third maxilliped of
  Pacific white shrimp

• Supply canal linked to the coastal lagoon from which the Texas A&M-ARML and Texas
   Parks and Wildlife Laboratory draw water

• The Marine Nitrogen Cycle

• The typical pattern of ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate concentrations in a newly started system

• Organic matter (biofloc) removed from a system by a foam fractionator

• 2,500 m3 reservoir pond and 36 m3 mixing tank at the Texas A&M-ARML80

• Concrete harvest basins at the Texas A&M-ARML and at Bowers Shrimp Farm,
   Palacios, Texas, US

• Air blowers inflate double-layer polyethylene greenhouse roofs at the Texas A&M-ARML

• Backup diesel generators (30 kW and 250 kW) installed at aquaculture facilities

• Air pressure gauge. Note installation of a 5 cm PVC valve for pressure regulation

• Positive displacement blower with belt drive and regenerative blowers driving diffusers
   and airlifts in the Texas A&M-ARML 40 m3 raceways. Blowers have inlet filters

• Silica air stones, diffuser hose, and micro-bubble diffuser

• Schematics and photo of an airlift in the Texas A&M-ARML 40 m3 raceways

• Schematic of a Venturi injector. Air/oxygen is drawn into the flow at the point of restriction

• Schematic of a three injector. 45-psi water mixes with air

• Pure oxygen supply; Liquid oxygen bottle (LOX), Compressed oxygen cylinders,
   oxygen generator

• Speece cone

• Diagram of a simple conical settling tank. Red arrows: water from culture tank.
   Blue arrows: water return to tank

• Hydrocyclone filter

• A swirl separator

• Pressurized Sand Filter and Poly Geyser® bead filter

• Drum Filter

• Belt feeders over shrimp production raceways

• Evenly-spaced belt feeders mounted on walkways over a raceway, and a single
   belt feeder mounted on the side of a culture tank

• Some measures to prevent entry of unauthorized personnel and predators

• Flow-injection analyzer used to measure ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate at the
   Texas A&M-ARML

• A greenhouse with six 40 m3 raceways at Texas A&M-ARML

• 40 m3 raceways and support systems

• Top-view schematic of 40 m3 raceway with support systems.

• Close-up and general layout of the raceway’s center partition

• Spray nozzle in bottom spray pipe

• Two-hp pump with 5 cm PVC pipe network and valves of 40 m3 raceway

• 40 m3 raceway

• Venturi injector assembly: oxygen flow meter, oxygen supply valve, oxygen supply hoses,
check valve, and air intake

• YSI 5500D DO monitoring system:

• Settling tanks for 40 m3 raceway system

• Foam fractionator in the 40 m3 raceway

• Multi-cyclone mounting and valve arrangement in 40 m3 raceway

• Separation tanks with drying biofloc

• Dry biofloc in a separation tank.

• Greenhouse for two 100 m3 raceways with double-layer inflated roof covered by
   black shade cloth

• Schematic top-view of the 100 m3 raceway

• 100 m3 raceway

• Two 2 hp centrifugal pumps for a 100 m3 raceway

• A saddle for a paddlewheel flow meter and one of two 5 cm PVC distribution pipes
  feeding 7 a three injectors in each raceway

• Water and air flow of a three injector for aeration and mixing in the 100 m3 raceway

• Oxygen backup system

• Center partition

• A full and empty raceway. Notice freeboard in the full raceway

• Raceway filled to working depth with 20 cm PVC standpipe extending above the surface

• Two m3 outdoor fiberglass settling for one raceway

• Homemade foam fractionator

• Concrete harvest basin

• Filter bag on seawater inlet of Texas A&M-ARML

• Pressure spraying raceways with freshwater to remove organic matter

• Venturi injector for adding disinfectants to a reservoir

• Liquid sodium hypochlorite in a 200 L drum with a siphon pump

• Chemical storage in containment trays to limit spills

• Disinfecting a raceway with chlorine solution spray while wearing protective equipment

• A modified container used to drip a chemical solution into a culture tank

• One-liter Imhoff cones used to measure settleable solids.

• Raceway filled with new water with low biofloc and turbidity vs. raceway with matured
  biofloc water with high turbidity

• Harvested shrimp being dissected, dried, and ground for ionic composition analysis

• Microbial Community Color Index (MCCI) indicating the transition from an algal to
   a bacterial system as feed load increases

• Raceways with algal dominated water

• Filter screens surrounding the pump intake standpipe of two systems to prevent
   entrapment of postlarvae

• Bottom and biofloc PVC mixing tool

• Mixing a raceway manually. Note the uneven distribution of biofloc on the surface

• Postlarvae grading from a larval rearing tank

• In-tank postlarvae separation

• Smaller postlarvae remaining after removal of larger postlarvae

• Shipping postlarvae in oxygen-inflated plastic bags packed in Styrofoam boxes

• Acclimating PLs in hauling tanks

• Small-tank acclimation

• Standpipe in acclimation tank is removed to let postlarvae drain by gravity into the
nursery tank

• Sampling postlarvae in an acclimation tank

• Observation and counting of postlarvae in samples collected from acclimation tanks or
   shipping bags

• Top view of postlarvae sampling tank with bottom aeration grid

• Spoutless sampling cups

• Metal strainer for quantifying postlarvae

• Image of postlarva tail showing half-empty gut

• High size variation of postlarvae in a nursery

• Example of a wide size distribution in a nursery

• Suggested daily feed rations and particle size based on water temperature, survival,
  stocking density, and assumed feed conversion ratio as used in a nursery trial
  at the Texas A&M-ARML

• Typical shrimp nursery feed labels

• Data recording station, pre-weighing conveyor, post-weighing conveyor, and an
   electronic balance between the two conveyors with remote display

• Fish basket for harvesting small juvenile shrimp, basket for weighing large juveniles with
  a close-up of fish basket wall lined with 1 mm net, and a fish basket with a lid and handle

• Harvest by swivel standpipe

• Dewatering device with a close view of a dewatering rack and a fish pump

• Pump intake filter screen pipe with pump intake, and aeration ring

• The 5 cm PVC screw cap of the bottom spray pipe at the raceway’s deep end

• The 5 cm PVC valve controlling water flow into the Venturi injector

• The 5 cm bleed valve controlling water flow into the bottom spray pipe

• An air diffuser attached to the bottom spray pipe

• Water supply to 100 m3 raceway

• Effect of 20% improvement in biological or price factors on 10-year Net Present Value (NPV)
of a super-intensive biofloc Pacific white shrimp production

• Feed bags stacked on a wooden pallet and wrapped in shrink-wrap

• Typical feed bag labels

• Placement of belt feeders in a 100 m3 Texas A&M-ARML raceway

• Cast net used in a confined space to monitor growth in a 100 m3 tank and an open area

• Sampling procedure at the Texas A&M-ARML

• Shrimp with signs that indicate culture problems

• Shrimp with suboptimal and optimal gut fullness

• Vivid appearance of freshly chill-killed shrimp compared to stressed or dead shrimp
   that have been chilled

• Containers, materials, and tools for harvest at the Texas A&M-ARML

• A standpipe in the 20 cm drain outlet during normal operation

• Threaded 15 cm outlet in the harvest basin side wall above the bottom and a
   filter pipe to prevent foreign objects from entering the drain line

• Non-submersible and submersible fish pump with hydraulic hoses, hydraulic power
   pack, electric motor, hydraulic pump, and hydraulic oil tank

• Fish pump connected directly to the raceway outlet on the side wall of the harvest basin

• Funneling shrimp from the de-watering tower into harvest basket with lid

• A shrimp trap used for live harvest

• DC-powered submersible pump with protective netting and a spray bar inside a 600 L
  live-haul tank

• Settled solids level from an anaerobic digester measured with a clear sampling tube

• Stages in a denitrification digester. These may be located in separate tanks or
   separate compartments in the same tank

• Artificial wetland growing Salicornia sp. to filter water from a shrimp system

• Sub-surface flow in a constructed wetland for nutrient recovery of mariculture effluent

• Schematic and flow diagram with photos of HSSF constructed wetland for nutrient
   recovery of mariculture effluent

• Shrimp health in culture systems is affected by many factors that act together
  to determine growth, survival, and FCR

• Shrimp with full and partially full guts

• Shrimp with severe discoloration of tail segments (necrosis) suggesting
  Vibrio infection, infectious myonecrosis, or microsporidiosis

• Necrosis on shrimp

• Shrimp molts collected from a raceway

• Monitoring shrimp size variation is important in health monitoring and necessary for
   selecting an appropriate size feed

• Preserved juvenile L. vannamei showing signs of IHHNV-caused runt deformity syndrome

• Juvenile L. vannamei showing signs of Taura syndrome: red tail fan with rough edges
   on the cuticular epithelium of uropods and multiple melanized cuticular lesions

• Juvenile L. vannamei showing signs of white spot disease: distinctive white spots,
   especially on the carapace and rostrum or pink to red-brown discoloration

P. monodon showing signs of yellow head disease (YHD): Yellow to yellow-brown
  discoloration of the cephalothorax and gill region

P. monodon and L. stylirostris with signs of vibriosis

• Shrimp mortalities following EMS outbreak in Mexico in 2012

• Sub-adult Farfantepenaeus californiensis and Litopenaeus vannamei showing
   signs of Fusarium disease

L. vannamei postlarva with trophozoites of the gregarine Paraophioidina scolecoides
  in the midgut

Litopenaeus setiferus and juvenile L. vannamei with signs of cotton shrimp disease

• Scavengers such as raccoons and other pests must be excluded from culture and feed
   storage areas to prevent predation on shrimp and disease introduction

• Molts and dead shrimp removed from a culture tank during a Vibrio outbreak

• Ten-year annual net cash flow

• Greenhouse structure to cover eight 500 m2 raceway units sharing a central harvest area

• Marketing network with flows of information on product demand, price/availability,
   product supply, and transactions

• Example distribution channels for shrimp

• Historical Gulf of Mexico brown bhrimp (shell-on headless) prices at first point of sale,
  1998 – 2014

• Farm-raised Pacific white shrimp prices, Central and South America (head-on) at
  first point of sale, 1998 – 2014

• A common swimming pool pressurized sand filter with manual backwash, an automated
  bead filter, and a large foam fractionator used to control particulate matter in three
  separate raceways in the 2003 nursery trial

• Weekly changes in TAN, NO2-N, NO3-N, and TSS in trials with 3 different particle
   control methods

• Heavy foam developed in the raceway with the pressurized sand filter, a persistent algal
  bloom developed in the raceway with a foam fractionator during the 2003 nursery trial,
  imhoff cones, showing water coloration in the raceways operated with bead filter,
  sand filter, and foam fractionator

• Homemade foam fractionators, with a designated pump, Venturi injector, polyethylene
  foam-diverting sleeve, and foam collection tank

• Weekly changes in ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, daily changes in nitrite and weekly
changes in TSS

• Daily NO2-N in a 52-d nursery trial (2010) with Pacific white shrimp at 3,500 PL11/m3
  in four 40 m2 raceways and no water exchange

• Weekly changes in TAN, NO2-N, TSS, and SS in a 49-d nursery trial (2012) in
   six 40 m3 raceways with Pacific white shrimp at 1,000 PL9/m3 and no exchange

• Changes in TAN and NO2-N in a 62-d nursery trial (2014) with the Pacific white shrimp
   PL5-10 (0.9 ± 0.6 mg) at 540/m3 in two 100 m3 raceways with no exchange

• A photo of the black HDPE-extruded netting around the perimeter of a 40 m3 racewa
used in 2006 in a 94-d growout trial with Pacific white shrimp juveniles (0.76 ± 0.08 g)
at 279/m3

• Pacific white shrimp showing tail necrosis and tail deformities

• Yellow and green Vibrio counts in a 38-d growout trial (2014) in 100 m3 raceways with
   hybrid (fast-growth × Taura-resistant) juveniles (6.4-g) at 458/m3

•  Imhoff cones with bacterial floc

• TCBS agar plates with Vibrio colonies

• A CHROMagar (RambaCHROM) agar plate with mauve (V. parahaemolyticus), green-blue
to turquoise-blue (V. vulnificus / V. cholerae), and white (colorless) (V. alginolyticus)
colonies

• Injection points for fixation of whole shrimp

• Incision locations for fixation of whole shrimp

• Layout of the Basic WQ Map

• Data input panels of the WQ Map

• WQ map for the example in the text with initial and target points plus the bicarbonate vector

• Adjustment Options menu with sodium bicarbonate selected

• WQ points in the yellow adjustment zone can be reached by adding nabicarbonate
   and Na-hydroxide

• Adding 1.13 kg of Na-bicarbonate and 0.26 kg of Na-hydroxide solves the example problem

•  Adding 0.58 kg of Na-bicarbonate and 0.70 kg of Na-carbonate also solves the
   example problem

• No amount of Na-carbonate and Na-hydroxide can reach the target of the example

• WQ Map decorated with the Green Zone (safe area) plus UIA and CO2 danger zones

• Setting critical values of un-ionized ammonia and dissolved carbon dioxide

• Predicted water quality 6 ½ hrs after feeding 120 kg of shrimp at 1.5%/day

• Cases where adding NaHCO3 increases pH and decreases pH

•  A case in which adding NaHCO3 does not change pH

• Adding and removing CO2 changes pH without changing Total Alkalinity

 

Tables

(top of page)

 

• Production performance of Arca Biru farm in 2010

• Amount of water to produce 1-kg shrimp

• Growout trial comparison

• Calculations of daily energy and protein requirements for Pacific white shrimp

• Recommended dietary vitamin and mineral requirements for shrimp

• Summary of progress in the genetic improvement of Pacific white shrimp by
   Shrimp Improvement Systems (SIS)

• General characteristics of water sources for shrimp culture

• Ionic composition of seawater compared to a sea salt mix and two inland saline waters

• Consequences of chemoautotrophic, heterotrophic bacterial, and algal metabolism
   for 1 g of ammonia-nitrogen

• The main characteristics of heterotrophic and autotrophic systems

• Consequences of chemoautotrophic and heterotrophic bacterial metabolism in a
   mixotrophic system with 1 kg of 35% protein feed, no supplemental organic carbon,
   and 50.4 g NH4+-N

• Oxygen solubility at atmospheric pressure

• The influence of pH directly on shrimp

• Percentage of total ammonia in the more toxic un-ionized ammonia form in 32 - 40 ppt
  salinity seawater at different temperatures and pH

• Maximum concentrations of heavy metals, pesticides, and PCBs permitted by the
  FDA in farmed shrimp

• Site selection factors for an indoor shrimp production facility

• Thermal resistance (R) of common materials

• Characteristics of three liners commonly used by in aquaculture

• Characteristics of blower-driven, pump-driven, and combined methods for indoor biofloc.

• Water depth to which air can be pumped at different air pressures

• General characteristics of different diffusers

• Comparison of pure oxygen sources

• Comparison of equipment for solids control in indoor biofloc systems.

• Recommended equipment for indoor super-intensive biofloc shrimp production

• Cleaning and disinfection protocol

• Recommended concentrations and exposure times for chlorine disinfection

• Products to increase the concentration of major cations in culture water

• Common reagents used to increase alkalinity and their characteristics

• Organic carbon sources for biofloc systems

• Calculation of carbon addition (as white sugar) to remove a desired proportion of
   ammonia from a given amount of feed

• Recommended concentrations of selected trace elements in water for shrimp
   culture within a salinity range of 5 to 35 ppt

• Optimal ranges of water-quality parameters for Pacific white shrimp in biofloc
   systems, frequency of analysis, and adjustment methods

• Acclimation of Pacific white shrimp (PL10 and older) based on differences in pH,
   salinity (10 - 40 ppt), and temperature (C°)

• Pacific white shrimp postlarvae tolerance to formalin and low salinity by age

• Recommended exposure concentration and expected survival for formalin stress test
   of PL1 - PL5 Pacific white shrimp

• Recommended exposure concentration and expected survival for low salinity stress test
   of PL1 - PL5 Pacific white shrimp

• Recommended decrease and expected survival for low salinity stress test of PL1-PL5
   Pacific white shrimp

• Pacific white shrimp postlarvae stress tests

• Summary of postlarvae quality assessment

• Summary of observations of postlarvae and recommended responses

• Routine nursery activities

• Data sheet recording samples to calculate total yield from a hypothetical nursery

• Feed table based on maximum ingestion according to body weight

• Example of data collected from a growout tank

• Routine tasks associated with managing growout raceways

• Growout routine

• Shrimp health summary

• Template for calculating staffing, salary and wages for a shrimp production facility

• Template for determining electrical costs for typical machinery items used in a
   greenhouse shrimp production facility

• Bio-economic model user input spreadsheets, biological parameters to enter

• Bio-economic model user input spreadsheets, raceway and greenhouse physical
   facility parameters to enter

• Bio-economic model user input spreadsheets, input unit cost-price parameters to enter

• Bio-economic model user input spreadsheets, capital investment costs

• Investment item information required for the bio-economic mode

• Calculation of initial investment and annual replacement costs

• Intermediate and long-term loan payments of annual interest and principal

• Enterprise budget (receipts, variable costs, fixed costs, net returns to land) and
   breakeven prices for a super-intensive shrimp production system consisting of ten
   greenhouses (eight growout raceways per greenhouse and two nursery
   raceways per greenhouse) based on average of 10-year cash flow

• Example of one year cash flow generated as an output from cash flow for
   recirculating biosecure shrimp production facility

• Bio-economic model output. Ten-year cash flow for calculating payback period, net
   present value and internal rate of return for a super-intensive recirculating shrimp
   production system using hyper-intensive 35% crude protein feed, stocking at 324
   juveniles/m3, juveniles weighing 4.7 g and grown to 27 g, having a 1.59 FCR,
   grown for 77 days

• Three building structure options to enclose raceway units

• Estimated raceway construction costs for two wall types and slab or sand bottoms, and
   as-built raceway cost

• Raceway economies of scale with post and liner construction

• Fixed costs for constructions and equipment/machinery for the Texas A&M-ARML
   indoor recirculating shrimp production facility, six 40 m3 raceways, 2014

• Fixed costs for constructions and equipment/machinery for the Texas A&M-ARML
   indoor recirculating shrimp production facility, two 100 m3 raceways, 2014

• Base scenario conditions used in bio-economic model run

• Change in Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and Cost of
   Production (COP) with 20% Improvement in Critical Production Factors

• 2013 study results comparing hyper-Intensive 35% protein feed (HI-35) to a 40%
   protein experimental feed (EXP)

• Summary of 2013 production results extrapolated to a greenhouse with eight 500 m3
   growout raceways and two 500 m3 nursery raceways and two shrimp selling prices

• Summary of economic analysis for the 2013 trials extrapolated to a greenhouse with eight
   500 m3 growout raceways and two 500 m3 nursery raceways at two shrimp selling prices

• Summary of 2014 nursery study comparing production of shrimp grown in two
   different greenhouse/raceway configurations

• Summary of 2014 nursery study cost of shrimp production raised in two
   different greenhouse/raceway configurations

• Summary of 2014 growout study comparing production of shrimp grown in two
   different greenhouse/raceway configurations and fed two diets in the greenhouse
    with six raceways

• Summary of 2014 growout study cost of shrimp production grown in two
   different greenhouse/raceway configurations and fed two diets in the greenhouse
   having six raceways

• Historical ex-vessel price ($/lb) for head-on shrimp from the northern Gulf of Mexico

• The effect of shrimp size on production and economic measures

• Summary of 40 m3 nursery trials (1998 and 1999) with Pacific white shrimp
   postlarvae at different stocking densities

• Summary of 50-d nursery trial in 2000 with PL8-10 (0.8 mg) Pacific white shrimp at
   3,700 PL/m3 in 40 m3 raceways with sand filter and supplemented pure oxygen

• Summary of a 74-d nursery trial (2003) with 40 m3 raceways with 0.6 mg PL5-6 Pacific
   white shrimp at 4,300, 7,300, and 5,600 PL/m3 with a bead filter, pressurized sand
   filter, and foam fractionator

• Results from a 71-d nursery (2004) in 40 m3 raceways with 0.6 mg Pacific white shrimp
   PLs at 4,000/m3 and particulate matter controlled by water exchange or a
   combination of pressurized sand filters and homemade foam fractionators)

• Summary of 62-d nursery trial (2009) with 1 mg Pacific white shrimp PL10-12 in
   40 m3 raceways at 5,000 PL/m3 offered 30% and 40% crude protein feeds

• Performance of fast-growth and Taura-resistant Pacific white shrimp PLs in a 52-d
   nursery (2010) in 40 m3 raceways at 3,500 PL11/m3 and no water exchange

• Performance of fast-growth and Taura-resistant Pacific white shrimp PL9 (2.5 mg) in
   a 49-d nursery trial (2012) in 40 m3 raceways at 1,000 PL/m3 and no exchange

• Water quality in a 49-d nursery trial (2012) in 40 m3 raceways with Pacific white shrimp
   at 1,000 PL9/m3 and no exchange

• Summary of 62-d nursery trial (2014) with Pacific white shrimp PL5-10 (0.9 ± 0.6 mg)
   at 675 PL/m3 in 40 m3 raceways fed EZ Artemia and dry feed in biofloc-dominated water
   with no exchange

• Summary of a 62-d nursery trial (2014) with Pacific white shrimp PL5-10 (0.9 ± 0.6 mg)
   at 540 PL/m3 in 100 m3 raceways fed EZ Artemia and dry feed in biofloc-dominated
   water with no exchange

• Nursery trials in raceways at the Texas A&M AgriLife Research Mariculture Laboratory
   (1998-2014)

• Performance of Pacific white shrimp juveniles (0.76 ± 0.08 g) stocked at 279/m3 in
   a 94-d growout trial (2006) in 40 m3 limited exchange raceways fed 35% protein feed

• Summary of a 92-d growout trial (2007) in 40 m3 raceways with Pacific white shrimp
   juveniles (1.3 ± 0.2 g) at 531/m3 fed a 35% crude protein feed and no water exchange.
   Foam fractionators and settling tanks for solids control

• Pacific white shrimp performance in a 108-d growout trial (2009) in 40 m3 raceways with
  1.0 g juveniles at 450/m3 and either a foam fractionator or settling tank for TSS control

• Summary of the 2011 growout trial with Pacific white shrimp juveniles in five 40 m3
raceways at 500/m3 with no water exchange and fed a 35% protein feed

• Water quality in the 2012 groout trial with Pacific white shrimp juveniles in 40 m3 raceways
    at 500/m3 with no water exchange and 35% protein feed

Pacific white shrimp performance in a 67-d growout trial (2012) with 2.7 g juveniles in 40 m3
raceways at 500/m3 fed two commercial feeds, no water exchange, with foam fractionators
and settling tanks to control biofloc

• Water quality in a 77-day growout trial (2013) with Pacific white shrimp juveniles in
   40 m3 raceways at 324/m3 fed commercial (HI-35) and experimental (EXP-40) feed
    with no water exchange

• Pacific white shrimp performance in a 77-d growout trial (2013) in 40 m3 raceways at
324/m3 fed commercial (HI-35) and experimental (EXP-40) feed with no water exchange

• Water quality in a 49-d growout trial (2014) with Pacific white shrimp juveniles in
   40 m3 raceways fed two commercial feeds with no water exchange

• Mean Vibrio colony counts on TCBS over a 49-d growout trial (2014) in 40 m3 raceways
   fed 35% and 40% protein feeds (HI-35 and EXP-40)

• Pacific white shrimp performance in a 49-d growout trial (2014) in 40 m3 raceways fed
   35% and 40% protein feeds with no water exchange

• Growout trials in 40 m3 raceways at the Texas A&M-ARML (2006 - 2014)

• Summary of 87-d growout trial (2010) in 100 m3 raceways with Pacific white shrimp
   juveniles (8.5 g) at 270/m3 with no water exchange

• Water quality in a 106-d growout trial (2011) in 100 m3 raceways stocked with 3.1 g
    juvenile Pacific white shrimp at 390/m3, a three injectors, HI-35 feed, and no exchange

• Summary of a 106-d growout trial (2011) in 100 m3 raceways stocked with 3.1 g juvenile
   Pacific white shrimp at 390/m3, a three injectors, HI-35 feed, and no exchange

• Summary of a 63-d trial (2012) in 100 m3 raceways with 3.6 g Pacific white shrimp
   juveniles at 500/m3, a three injectors, HI-35 feed, and no exchange

• Water quality in a 38-d growout trial (2014) in 100 m3 raceways with 6.4 g hybrid
   (fast-growth × Taura-resistant) Pacific white shrimp juveniles at 458/m3

Vibrio counts in a 38-d trial (2014) in 100 m3 raceways with hybrid
   (fast-growth × Taura-resistant) juveniles (6.4 g) at 458/m3

• Summary of a 38-d growout trial (2014) in 100 m3 raceways with Pacific white shrimp
   (6.4 g) at 458/m3, a three injectors, EXP-40 feed, and no exchange

• Growout trials 1n 100 m3 raceways at the Texas A&M-ARML (2010-2014)

• Percentage of toxic (un-ionized) ammonia in the 23 - 27 ppt salinity range
   at different temperatures and pH

• Percentage of toxic (un-ionized) ammonia in the 18 - 22 ppt salinity range
   at different temperatures and pH

• Percentage of toxic (un-ionized) ammonia in freshwater (TDS = 0/mg L)
   at different temperatures and pH

• Colony color formed by different pathogenic Vibrio spp. on TCBS agar plates
   according to sucrose or non-sucrose fermenting

• Recommended water quality laboratory analyses, equipment, and supplies

Information: Carol Mendoza, Home Office Director, World Aquaculture Society, 143 J.M. Parker Coliseum, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA (Phone 1-225-578-3137, Fax 1-225-578-3493, Email carolm@was.org, Webpage http://www.was.org/Shopping/was-books).  Note: Dr. Samocha’s book will not be available from WAS until sometime in early 2017.

Information: Tzachi Samocha, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, Texas A&M AgriLife Research, Marine Solutions and Feed Technology, LLC, 4110 East Colt Shadow Lane, Texas 77386, USA (Phone 1-832-823-4223, Fax 1-253-390-6081, Skype tzachitx, Email tzachi.samocha@gmail.com and t-samocha@tamu.edu).

Sources: 1. A preliminary e-copy of Design and Operation of Super-Intensive Biofloc-Dominated Systems for Indoor Production of the Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei - The Texas A&M AgriLife Research Experience by Dr. Tzachi Samocha.  2. Email from Dr. Samocha on December 6, 2016. 3. Bob Rosenberry, Shrimp News International, December 9, 2016.

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